In the late 1940s Lucio Fontana developed the idea of ‘spatialism’ – art as gesture or performance, encompassing colour, light, sound, movement, time and space that transcended the illusionism of traditional easel painting. From the 1960s Donald Judd championed a new type of three-dimensional art that had its roots in the reductive forms of abstract painting but was not constrained by the flat surface and traditional materials of painting. Helio Oticica’s ‘habitable paintings’ also liberated painting from the wall during the 1960s. His abstract compositions and installations, in which flat painted panels were suspended in space, physically engaged the body in a three-dimensional experience of painting. More recently, artists such as Jessica Stockholder, Katharina Grosse and Judy Millar have similarly made abstract paintings to be walked around or through. Miranda Parkes and Helen Calder work within this expanded field, where the discipline of painting has been so deconstructed that what remains is an open field of possibilities.